Orthodontics

ORTHODONTICS
Orthodontic treatment corrects a “bad bite” by exerting a gentle pressure over time to straighten teeth. Modern braces are much less noticeable, and some patients can even be treated with practically invisible braces, called Invisalign®.
What is orthodontics?
Orthodontics is the dental specialty for treating malocclusion, the condition commonly referred to as “bad bite”. Orthodontic treatment works by exerting a gentle pressure over time to straighten teeth. The braces that exert this pressure are fitted by dental specialists called orthodontists.
How do braces work?
Orthodontic treatment works by exerting a gentle pressure over time to straighten teeth. Braces exert this pressure with brackets that attach to teeth and arch wires that run from bracket to bracket. Modern dentistry has made this hardware much smaller and less visible. In some cases, the dentist can use brackets and wires that are transparent or attach behind the teeth. Invisalign® is a newer technology that uses clear appliances that look like mouthguards. Ask the dentist what technology is recommended for your particular circumstances.
Why do some people have a bad bite?
Most malocclusions or “bad bites” are hereditary. These inherited problems include too much space between teeth, missing teeth, extra teeth, crowded teeth, as well as various jaw issues. Some malocclusions are acquired through prolonged thumb-sucking, early or late loss of baby teeth, or accidents. However the malocclusion developed, the dentist can recommend orthodontic treatment that corrects it.
Should I get braces?
The dentist knows that braces are a very reliable way to improve the appearance of your smile. This improvement may affect more than just your appearance as it can make you feel more attractive and more confident. The dentist wants you to have a beautiful, healthy smile – one that you can be proud of. Many “bad bite” problems affect not only the teeth, but the development and appearance of the face. Malocclusion can affect the way a person looks, talks, and chews. Discuss your particular circumstances with the dentist.
What age is the best to get braces?
Teeth can be moved by orthodontic treatment at any age, but some treatments are more effective when one is younger. The American Association of Orthodontists recommends an evaluation for children no later than age seven. Adult patients can very often get the same results as child patient, but in some instances the treatment will take longer. The dentist can show you options for your particular circumstances.
What is Invisalign®?
One of the latest and most exciting advances for patients with malocclusion (bad bite and/or crooked teeth) is Invisalign ® and the other new clear aligners. Invisalign® is the brand name for a new kind of braces that are removable and practically invisible. It is actually a series of clear aligners that you wear like an athlete wears a mouthpiece. As the treatment progresses, your teeth gradually move to fit the aligner, and then you start wearing the next aligner. The dentist will design the treatment program so that by the time you are finished wearing the last aligner in the series, your teeth will have adjusted to the proper position.
Who is a good candidate for Invisalign®?
Once your permanent teeth are in, usually between the ages of twelve and fourteen, you ar a candidate for Invisalign®. While teens love how invisible their orthodontic treatment can be, Invisalign® is especially popular with adults. Now it is not too late for people to address crooked teeth and bad-bite issues later in life. Before Invisalign®, some adults thought they were “too old” to have metal braces on their mouth. Ask the dentist whether your dental problems can be treated with the Invisalign® technology.
What are the advantages of Invisalign®?
  • Invisalign® can treat many orthodontic problems
  • It is clear and practically invisible – nobody has to know you are straightening your teeth
  • You can remove it out to brush and floss your teeth as normal
  • You can remove it to eat and drink what you want- just put it back in when you are done
  • It is very comfortable. There are no wires or brackets and no adjustments

Extractions

EXTRACTIONS/WISDOM TOOTH REMOVAL
A tooth extraction is the removal of a tooth, a safe and routine procedure that is no cause for worry. If extraction is recommended, for a wisdom tooth or any other tooth, the dentist will explain why this is the best course of action for the health of your mouth.
What is tooth extraction?
A tooth extraction is the removal of a tooth, a safe and routine procedure that is no cause for worry. Sometimes it is referred to as “pulling teeth”. The dentist may perform the procedure right in her/his office, or under certain circumstances refer you to an oral surgeon.
Why would I need an extraction?
The dentist may recommend extraction for a number of reasons, including:
  • The tooth is so badly decayed that it cannot be saved and the mouth would be healthier without it
  • The tooth has been broken in a way that cannot be repaired
  • A tooth is impacted, which means it has not properly emerged through the gums. This often happens with wisdom teeth.
  • A tooth is positioned in away that it could crowd or damage other teeth
  • Removal in preparation for braces or orthodontic treatment
  • Very serious gum disease, called periodontitis
What are wisdom teeth?
Wisdom teeth are actually your third set of molars, the chewing teeth towards the back of your mouth. They typically emerge, or erupt, in one’s late teen or early twenties. If there is room in the jaw to accommodate them, and they emerge fully and straight, without crowding other teeth, then there is no need to remove them.
Why would wisdom teeth need to be extracted?
Though there is nothing inherently wrong with wisdom teeth, they are often removed so that they don’t cause problems for your other teeth and the rest of your mouth. Wisdom teeth often get impacted, which means they did not fully or properly emerge through the gums. Partially emerged teeth can be difficult to clean, which leads to plaque accumulation and tooth decay. Teeth that are not positioned straight can cause comfort issue and crowd existing teeth. Ask the dentist to show you your wisdom teeth on the x-ray and explain how their positioning affects your mouth.
What can I expect from an extraction?
While it may sound like a scary procedure, modern dentistry has made the procedure routine, with minimal discomfort. Make sure to share any concerns you have with the dentist. Extractions are performed with anesthesia which numbs the area of the mouth around the tooth to be extracted, so while you will feel some pressure from the procedure, there should be little or no pain. If you have trouble getting numb, or have dental fears that make you uncomfortable with dentistry, discuss this ahead of time with the dentist. It may be possible to use sedation dentistry to keep you relaxed and comfortable throughout the whole procedure. Once you are comfortable, the procedure is usually relatively quick. Afterwards, the dentist will give you instructions on keeping the removal area clean and helping the area properly heal. It is important to carefully follow these instructions to prevent infection or other complications. The dentist may also discuss the benefits of and options for tooth replacement, including partial dentures, bridges and dental implants.
What alternatives do I have to extraction?
This really depends on your particular circumstances, so it is best to ask the dentist whether there are any alternatives. Depending on the circumstances it may be possible to repair a damaged tooth with a crown and/or a root canal instead of extracting it. While extraction may seem initially like the least expensive option, the dentist will probably recommend replacing the extracted tooth. An extracted tooth that is not replaced can leave a gap that causes problems for the surrounding teeth and potentially affecting your bite. If it is an option, repairing and saving the tooth may end up being less expensive than extracting and replacing that same tooth with partial dentures, bridges or dental implants. Ask the dentist to explain all the options, and why extraction is or is not recommended.

Root Canal

ROOT CANAL
An abscessed tooth has an infection that can only be removed by extracting the tooth or performing root canal treatment. Root canal treatment is a dental procedure designed to remove infection from the soft center of a tooth and save the rest of the tooth.
Why would someone need root canal treatment?
Some toothaches or gum pain are actually symptoms of an infection inside a tooth, called an abscess. Tooth decay and trauma can break through the hard outer layers of a tooth, exposing the inner tooth to bacteria and infection. If there is infection in the soft center of a tooth, it has to be stopped from spreading to the gums and the rest of the mouth. A spreading infection can cause damage to other teeth, your gums and jawbone, and even spread through your body. Root canal treatment removes the infection and saves the rest of the tooth.
What is a root canal?
Root canals are actually specific parts of a tooth, but usually the term, “root canal” refers to a common dental treatment designed to save a tooth. The crown of the tooth, the part you see above the gum, has a soft center filled with blood vessels and nerves. These nerves and blood vessels also run through the tooth roots, down to the gums, inside thin tunnels known as root canals. When these nerves, blood vessels and other soft tissue get infected, a condition called an abscessed tooth, infection and bacteria can travel through the root canals down to the gums. To stop the spread of infection without extracting the tooth, the dentist performs a root canal treatment. The soft tissue is all removed, and the hard tissue of the tooth is cleaned and filled. The procedure is very common and can be done with minimal discomfort. Since the procedure actually saves much of the original tooth structure, it is a better, healthier option for the patient than having the tooth extracted.
What can I expect from the root canal procedure?
Root canals have really gotten a bad reputation, but for many people the procedure is not much more complicated than having a cavity filled. the dentist may perform root canal treatment right in the office, or refer you to a specialist, called an endodontist. In any event, the treatment can be done quickly and comfortably.
  • Before anything else is done, the dentist will make sure that you are completely comfortable with local anesthetics that numb the area around the affected tooth. If local anesthetics are not enough to make you comfortable, or of you have trouble getting numb, ask the dentist about sedation dentistry.
  • The dentist will create an opening in the hard surface of the tooth, and use special tools to clean out the soft tissue, the nerves and any bacteria or infection.
  • Once all the soft tissue has been removed, all the empty spaces, including the root canals, will be filled with special filling material to keep out any future infection. The dentist may wait a week to be certain the infection has been eliminated before permanently filling the tooth. If this is the case, temporary filling will close the tooth until the next appointment, the following week, when the tooth is permanently filled and closed.
  • After root canal treatment, the tooth will be more brittle than a “live” tooth, so the dentist will fit the tooth with a dental crown. Once the crown has been fitted, there may be some initial tenderness, but the new tooth will soon function and feel just like the original healthy tooth.
What are my alternatives to root canal treatment?
If you have an abscessed tooth, the infection must be removed to stop it from spreading. The only alternative to a root canal is extraction of the tooth.
While extraction may seem initially like the least expensive option, the dentist will probably recommend replacing the extracted tooth. An extracted tooth that is not replaced can leave a gap that causes problems for the surrounding teeth and potentially affect your bite. If root canal is an option, it may end up being less expensive than extracting and replacing that same tooth with a partial denture, bridge or a dental implant. Ask the dentist to explain all the options, and why root canal is recommended.

Sealants

SEALANTS
Sealants protect teeth from tooth decay by adding a protective layer to keep out plaque. Ask the dentist how this wonderful technology can, quickly and easily, help you and your children fight cavities.
What are sealants?
The chewing teeth toward the back of the mouth, the molars and pre-molars, have pits and fissures that can be difficult to clean. If plaque is not properly removed, it results in tooth decay. Sealants are a layer of composite plastic that the dentist can apply to your teeth to fill these pits and fissures to keep out the plaque. It’s like a suit of armor for your teeth! While often used for children, they are also beneficial for any adults who are struggling with tooth decay.
Are sealants for me?
Sealants are most often used on children’s molars and pre-molars, soon after they get their permanent teeth. But there is no reason that they cannot be used on adults, and they often are. Any child or adult who is struggling with tooth decay, especially in the back, chewing teeth, can benefit from sealants. Ask the dentist about sealants for yourself and your family.
What can I expect from the sealant procedure?
The procedure for placing sealants is very similar to the procedure for bonding or composite veneers. The appointment will start with a thorough exam and a professional cleaning. The dentist will use an etching solution that prepares the surface of the tooth to bond tightly with the sealant. The sealant is a composite resin material, a kind of plastic, that she/he will literally paint on the surface of the tooth. A special light will be used to instantly harden the sealant. The dentist will then check your bite, and make adjustments if the sealant is too thick. The hardened and firmly attached sealant is immediately ready for biting and chewing as normal.
What can I expect once I have sealants?
Sealants are considered permanent restorations, but that doesn’t mean that they will last forever. They can, however, last up to five years or longer. If part or all of the sealant wears off of the tooth, there is no cause for concern. Not only is the material non-toxic, but the sealant can easily be repaired or replaced with the same procedure used to originally place it. Get to the dentist’s office as soon as possible.

Periodontal Disease

PERIODONTAL DISEASE (Periodontitis)
Periodontitis is advanced gum disease. While gingivitis, the earlier stage, affects only the gums, periodontitis is inflammation and infection that has spread to surrounding tissue, including tooth and bone.
What is periodontitis?
Gum disease is categorized by severity. Gingivitis is milder, treatable and reversible early-stage gum disease that affects only the gums. Periodontitis is advanced gum disease, where the inflammation and infection have spread to surrounding tissues.
What causes periodontitis?
Periodontitis is caused by plaque, which unremoved, causes a gum infection which spreads to surrounding tissue. Plaque is a sticky film of bacteria that forms daily on our teeth. It reacts with the food we eat to produce acids and toxins that cause tooth decay. Newly formed plaque can be removed by brushing and flossing, but plaque that is not removed hardens into tartar or calculus. This hard layer of tartar forms at and below the gumline and cannot be removed by brushing. Tartar and plaque combine to accelerate tooth decay and irritate gums. The resulting inflammation and infection of the gums is called gingivitis. Untreated gingivitis creates pockets of plaque, tartar and bacteria between your teeth and gums. This spreads infection below the gums, eventually causing bone and tissue loss. This condition, known as periodontitis, is the biggest cause of adult tooth loss.
What are the symptoms of periodontitis?
Periodontitis will appear as:
  • Red, or reddish-purple swollen, tender gums
  • Gums that bleed very easily, even with gentle brushing (blood on toothbrush even with gentle brushing of the teeth)
  • Gums that hurt only when touched
  • Gums that have a “shiny look”
  • Gums that have receded from your teeth
  • Continuous bad taste in mouth or bad breath
  • Mouth sores
  • New spaces between teeth
  • Pus between teeth and gums
  • Teeth that are loose or a bite that changes
How can I prevent periodontitis?
Periodontitis is advanced gum disease, which results from untreated gingivitis. If you have symptoms of gingivitis, contact the dentist for a thorough examination and treatment. You can reduce the risk of gingivitis greatly by:
  • Brushing and flossing regularly
  • Quitting tobacco use
  • Making regular dental visits for examination and cleaning
What can the dentist do about periodontitis?
As with a case of gingivitis, the dentist or her/his dental hygienist will give your teeth a thorough cleaning above and below the gums. This will usually include a process called scaling, where the dental professional uses instruments to scrape the tartar off teeth below the gumline. Scaling is followed by a smoothing procedure called planing to make sure there are no rough surfaces to continue irritating the teeth. Since the infection is more widespread, the dentist may also need to perform surgical procedures to get below the gumline, to graft tissue on the gums, and to rebuild the bone lost to infection. The dentist can further describe the procedures and the techniques available for making patients comfortable during the appointments.
Why is it important to treat periodontitis?
Periodontitis is the major cause of adult tooth loss. Not only are your gums, teeth and the bones of your jaw at risk, but the infection and bacteria from periodontitis can lead to heart disease and stroke, and pregnancy complications. Inhaling bacteria from your mouth can also cause pneumonia. If you have any symptoms of gingivitis and periodontitis, contact the dentist for a thorough examination and treatment.

Plaque

PLAQUE
Plaque is a sticky film of bacteria that coats teeth. When we eat, plaque reacts with the food in our mouth and releases acids that eat away at teeth enamel, causing tooth decay.
What is plaque?
Plaque is a sticky film of bacteria that coats teeth. It consumes sugars in the foods we eat, and releases acids as a waste product. These acids slowly eat away at the enamel of teeth, if left unchecked, can cause tooth decay. Over time the plaque layer on teeth can harden to become tartar or calculus. This hard layer continues to release acids, and is even harder to remove than regular plaque. Plaque is a leading cause of gingivitis, early stage gum disease.
What causes plaque?
Plaque is naturally occurring bacteria in our mouths, and it can never be permanently eradicated. It becomes a problem when it is not regularly removed from our teeth by brushing and flossing.
What is tartar or calculus?
Tartar and calculus are both names for hardened plaque. This can be removed during a regular dental hygiene visit.
How can I prevent plaque?
You can’t prevent the formation of plaque, but there are things you can do to minimize the damage it can cause. You can fight plaque and prevent its buildup by:
  • Flossing every day and brushing at least twice a day
  • Using special after-brushing anti-bacterial rinses designed to fight plaque
  • Limiting sweets and sugary foods
  • Brushing after eating sweets and sugary foods
  • Making regular dental visits
What can the dentist do about plaque?
The dentist will certainly advise you on how to properly brush and floss, since this is your first and best defense against plaque. During your regular visits, she/he or a dental hygienist will give teeth a very thorough cleaning, and use instruments to remove tartar buildup. The dentist may be able to use special dental sealants on your molars, where decay often starts.

Adult Care

Adult Care and Prevention
Proper oral hygiene and regular visits to the dentist are the two best defenses against plaque, the root of most dental problems. The dentist encourages adult care and prevention that is focused on the fight against plaque, the preservation of natural tooth structure, and early the detection and treatment of serious oral problems.
Why is care and prevention important for adults?
Dental problems tend to get worse when left untreated. When you see the dentist for regular visits, small problems won’t have a chance to become major concerns. For instance, the longer tooth decay goes unchecked the more damage it can do to a tooth, and the less of the original tooth that can be saved. Good hygiene and dental visits are cost-effective, too. It costs much more to have teeth repaired and replaced than it does to have regular exams and cleanings.
What kind of care do adults need?
Adult care and prevention focuses on preventing tooth decay and gum disease, the preservation of natural tooth structure, and early detection and treatment of serious oral problems.
  • Most tooth decay and gum disease are due to plaque, so the dentist wants keeping plaque in check to be your first priority
  • To resist plaque, adults need to brush their teeth with a fluoride toothpaste at least twice a day. Brushing before bedtime is especially important, but brushing in the morning and after eating is recommended whenever possible.
  • Use a soft-bristled toothbrush that is small enough to reach all your teeth. Replace it when the bristles start to wear.
  • Floss your teeth every day to clean plaque from those places between teeth that can’t be reached by a toothbrush.
  • Schedule regular dental visits every 6 months, or more frequently if the dentist indicates that you are prone to plaque and tartar buildup. These visits will include a thorough examination and a professional cleaning by the dentist or her/his dental hygienist.
  • Discuss painful or problem areas with the dentist as soon as possible, so more serious problems can be prevented.
What prevention is possible with regular dental visits?
Regular dental visits serve two important purposes – to regularly give teeth a very thorough cleaning, and to examine teeth and gums for signs of serious problems. Some serious problems can be prevented if detected early.
What If I’ve Been Avoiding the Dentist?
We want you to know two things. First – you are not alone. Millions of people avoid the dentist for many different reasons. Second – we will not judge you or criticize you. We know that the last thing you need to hear is a lecture, so you have our promise that you won’t get one here. We just want to help you get your mouth healthy and your smile beautiful. If you’ve been procrastinating going to the dentist, whether because of fear of the dentist or because you just don’t have the time, sedation dentistry, may be the answer to your problem. For some people, sedation dentistry is as easy as taking a small pill. The dentist can discuss different sedation options with you, and can tell you if sedation is appropriate for your circumstances.

Advanced Dental Technology

Advanced Dental Technology

The dentists use the most advanced dental technology and state-of-the-art equipment to serve you and your family. Every year, the dentists continue their education with additional training on the latest in dentistry so our community can continue to have the best care available. Here are some of the amazing things happening at the dentist’s office right now:

Smile Makeovers with cutting-edge cosmetic technology

It is now possible to choose the smile you want. Modern cosmetic dentistry lets the dentist reshape, resurface or replace any tooth or all the teeth in your mouth. Schedule an appointment with the dentist to discuss the possibilities.

The latest in tooth replacement with advanced implant technology

There are now options to dentures and traditional tooth-replacement technology. Implant systems can give you back the smile and the confidence. Ask the dentist how the latest technology lets you smile, speak and eat your favorite foods without worries, and gives you the smile of your dreams.

Faster and more gentle – Advanced laser dentistry

Lasers are one of the most exciting recent developments in dentistry because they let the dentist get more accomplished and take away the discomfort at the same time. Less visits and more comfort! Find out more at your next visit.

The Latest in Comfort with Sedation Dentistry

If you have been avoiding the dentist because of fear or because you just don’t have the time – the answer is finally here. Modern sedation techniques make dentistry accessible and comfortable for everyone. Call the dentist to find out what type of sedation is right for you, and get that healthy mouth you’ve always wanted.

Today’s Technology for Whitening Your Smile

Nothing can change your smile as much and as quickly as professional whitening at the dentist’s office. Schedule a visit today and find out how advancements in whitening can safely and quickly give your smile a big lift.

Children Care

CHILDREN – CARE and PREVENTION
In addition to the primary goals of preventing tooth decay and gum disease, children have special needs for their developing teeth. The dentist will discuss a care and prevention plan that addresses these special needs and promotes good dental hygiene for the whole family.
When do children need to start seeing the dentist?
The sooner the better, but certainly by age two. An early dental visit lets the dentist examine your child’s teeth and gums to make sure there are no early problems. Your child’s first visit may just be to get them comfortable with the office, or for a quick examination.
What kind of care do infants need?
Good dental hygiene starts even before there are any visible teeth. Parents need to wipe the gums of infants with a damp soft washcloth after each meal and before bed. Once teeth emerge, parents should brush them with a soft toothbrush. To prevent tooth decay, no child should be put to bed with a bottle of anything other than water. A visit to the dentist is recommended before the second birthday. Ask her/him if a fluoride supplement is necessary.
What kind of care do children need?
As with adults, dental care for children focuses on preventing tooth decay and gum disease. Some children are especially prone to tooth decay because of diets that are heavy on sweets or poor dental hygiene. Since their teeth are still developing, they have some special needs as well:
  • Just like adults, children’s teeth need to be brushed with a fluoride toothpaste at least twice a day. Brushing before bedtime is especially important, but brushing in the morning and after eating is recommended whenever possible. The dentist suggests that you help younger children with their brushing until they are capable of properly doing it themselves.
  • Use a soft-bristled toothbrush that is small enough to reach all their teeth. Replace it when the bristles start to wear.
  • Try to minimize the amount of toothpaste children swallow. They only need a pea-sized amount on their brush, and they should be taught how to rinse and spit.
  • The dentist recommends dental appointments for children every 6 months. These visits will include a thorough examination and a professional cleaning by the dentist or her/his dental hygienist.
  • Children need to start flossing every night before bed once they get their permanent teeth.
  • In their teen years, the dentist will discuss whether braces or extraction are recommended to keep teeth straight and uncrowded.
  • The dentist may recommend fluoride supplements.
What prevention is possible with regular dental visits?
Regular dental visits serve two important purposes – to regularly give teeth a very thorough cleaning, and to examine teeth and gums for signs of serious problems. Children can resist cavities with good diet and proper dental hygiene. The dentist can discuss specific methods to fight tooth decay, including fluoride treatments and special sealants for children’s permanent molars.
Why is care and prevention important for children?
Dental problems tend to get worse when left untreated. When your children see the dentist for regular visits, small problems won’t have a chance to become major concerns. Good hygiene and dental visits are cost-effective, too. It costs much more to have teeth repaired and replaced than it does to have regular exams and cleanings.
My child can’t or won’t let a dentist get near their mouth. What can the dentist do?
Fear of strangers is normal and healthy for children. You can help your child get past these common fears by bringing them to your own routine dental visit. When your child meets the dentist and watches you being treated, it can make it easier for them to get comfortable with their own visit. The dentist and the whole dental team are experienced at working with children, and they will do everything they can to put your child at ease and keep the experience stress-free. For more severe issues of dental fear and anxiety, ask the dentist about anxiety-free or sedation dentistry specifically designed for children.

Laser Dentistry

LASER DENTISTRY
The dentist is always looking for ways to make your experience more comfortable and more convenient. Laser dentistry can do both of these, making it one of the most exciting new advances in dentistry. Ask the dentist how lasers can help you get a healthy mouth and a beautiful smile.
What is laser dentistry?
Traditional dentistry uses metal instruments and rotary tools on teeth and gums. Dental lasers use special, highly focused beams of light to perform procedures on teeth and gums, sometimes accompanied by water or air suction to keep the area clean and cool. The dentist has been specifically trained to use these lasers to perform dental procedures, often making the experience more comfortable for the patient, with fewer visits and less recovery time.
What are the advantages of laser dentistry?
Advantages of laser dentistry include the following:
  • There is often no need to use a drill for repairing tooth decay and placing a filling
  • Laser dentistry can often be performed without anesthesia, so you may not even need a needle
  • Gums surgery can be performed quickly, with less appointments, fast healing and no needles
  • Lasers can increase the strength of dental fillings and bonding
  • Post operative sensitivity can be reduced
  • Lasers can be used to thoroughly disinfect teeth and soft tissue
  • Children can be treated without drills and needles
  • Less pain and rapid healing for many procedures
Is laser dentistry right for me? What procedures can it do?
The dentist can explain how the lasers work and which procedures they are appropriate for in your circumstances. Lasers are often used to assist in the following procedures:
  • Most filling creation and replacements
  • Gum surgery, including gingevectomy to correct a gummy smile and procedures to heal gum disease
  • Root canals
  • Removal of oral lesions
  • Some biopsies in the mouth
  • Dentistry for children
  • Treat cold sores and mouth ulcers
  • Harden dental bonding and fillings
  • Certain in-office whitening procedures
Is laser dentistry safe?
Laser dentistry is extremely safe and has been approved by the American Dental Association for many dental procedures.